Since being created as independent states in 1947, India and Pakistan have spent decades warring or being engaged in conflicts and disputes. Both countries have a deep distrust of one another, often heightened by the interventions of the United States and China in taking sides. Tensions were reignited in early 2019 after a terrorist suicide bombing on a bus carrying India paramilitary police in Kashmir killed more than 40 people. The intervening weeks saw a ping-pong of military attacks between the two nuclear-armed countries, watched on nervously by the rest of the world.
Why do India and Pakistan keep clashing? Why do they distrust each other?
India-Pakistan relations have long been contentious, fuelled by the partition of India by Britain in 1947 and resulting conflict over the disputed region of Kashmir.
India and Pakistan were formally made independent of British colonial rule in 1947 and were split into two separate states.
The partition divided the provinces of Bengal and Punjab along religious lines, with India becoming largely Hindu and Pakistan mainly Muslim.
The separation officially began at midnight on the eve of August 14, 1947, and within weeks had turned into a bloody and brutal conflict.
Up to 15 million Indians and Pakistanis were forced into one of the biggest human migrations in history based on religion.
An estimated one million migrants perished while making their journeys, and violence over food shortages and looting soon followed.
Two months later in October, India and Pakistan formally entered into war with one another in a bid to wrest control of the Kashmir region.
At the time, Kashmir was a Muslim-majority population but it was ruled by a Hindu leader who could not decide which nation to join.
The area, roughly the size of the UK based in the mountainous Himalayan region, soon descended into armed conflict.
Still a disputed territory today, Kashmir is heavily manned by India, Pakistan and China.
Pakistan mainly controls the northwest, while India lays claim to the central and southern part and China administers the northeastern side.
Neither India nor Pakistan recognise one another’s land claims.
Since 1947, three major wars between the two countries have been fought in 1965, 1971 and 1999.
The 1965 and 1999 wars were about Kashmir while the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was sparked by the area of east Pakistan that is now Bangladesh.
Military tensions and verbal jabs have been rife since, although the recent level of violence has not been seen as such a high level for about 10 years.
India, supported by the United States, regularly accuses Pakistan of harbouring terrorists who then commit atrocities inside its land territories.
While Pakistan is worried about its independence and India trying to remove the partition.
Both nations are armed with nuclear weapons but both sides are reluctant to escalate this into a real attack given the devastating consequences it would have.